Since the beginning of the new century, information technology (IT) has presented many new advanced technologies that are now being used widely in order to provide computing resources as required. The compounding of Internet technologies like virtualized servers, web browsers, parallel computing and open source software have appeared as the additional computing resources in completely new ways. The term cloud computing describes the combination of these technologies.
IT merchants have gone over from the result of this integration to put packages together and offer companies that wish to outsource their traditional IT tasks. For example, these tasks includes the operation of data center, maintenance of enterprise applications like Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Human Resource Information System (HRIS) or other applications that are utilized only to operate the support to company.
Grid computing is a kind of distributed computing. A grid is designed so that the resources are not controlled by a central authority. These open, standardized protocols and interfaces are used in order to provide storage and computing capabilities over the Internet. On the basis of grid computing, the computing power and data is shared across organizational boundaries in a safe and efficient manner. Among the basic concepts of grid computing include standardization, automation and the abstraction of the hardware. With the standardized interfaces, it is totally possible to have access to all the available computing systems within the grid.
Grid computing is derived from the basic concepts and technologies. Grid computing provides the basis for infrastructure-as-a-service, by providing the basic concepts of standardized and highly scalable system architectures that can be used as abstract virtual IT services. Moreover, the expansion of grid computing means computing, storage and network capacity as required without human interaction.
Virtualization will be as an emulation and simulation of the hardware resources that decouples the hardware from the operating system, thereby increasing the degree of flexibility characterized.
Two areas are the driving factors of virtualization in IT. Where one is server consolidation, bringing the number of physical servers within a data center system. The second area is the application virtualization. This will accelerate the deployment of applications, which also increases the flexibility of the company. Furthermore, virtualization provides an optimized utilization of IT resources that can be increased using an intelligent distribution of applications on the free resources at 70% – 90%. This also leads to higher cost savings. A virtualization software provides the allocation of a physical server into multiple virtual and facilitates the parallel provision of the cloud services for multiple customers. Thus, the IT infrastructure of a cloud provider will be consolidated and operated economically, leading to low-cost cloud services.
In cloud computing virtualization is basically used to automate the user resources as required and provide more flexibility. Without this technology and cloud computing concepts it would not be possible.
Software as a Service
The concept of Software-as-a-Service is one of the leading drivers of cloud computing in recent years. Software vendors take the risk by buying it in advance and making it available for end user over the internet. These software’s can be accessed through a standard web browser, rather than buying the software and installing it on your local system.
Especially the idea of the Software-as-a-Service is to offer the advantage of any software as required, and not in expectation of investing in it.
Open Source Software
The Internet technologies that are currently being used such as Apache, MySQL, development environments, frameworks such as Ruby, PHP technologies and Infrastructure such as Linux, Xen shows the power of open source software to the current infrastructure.