Operators who have points of presence neighbors generally prefer to exchange their flow directly without going through their transit operator. This approach has 2 advantages: it reduces the cost (such exchanges are not charged), and improves performance (exchanges take a shorter route). It is then subject to exchange traffic (peering) and where it occurs is called the point of traffic exchange (peering point). This exchange is often graceful but where the exchange between two ISPs is unbalanced or that an operator is aggrieved, compensation can be implemented.
Levels of operators (third)
Some operators – known as Level 1 – are able to access all networks from the Internet without financial compensation. It therefore have exchange agreements between each of them, and receive, via these peering links, all roads Internet.
These operators generally impose strong constraints on operators wishing to negotiate an agreement to exchange traffic. Indeed, such an operator – a potential customer offers transit – would become competitors.
Operators Level 3 do not provide transit service. Other operators are called Level 2: it depends on a supply of transit (or at least an agreement to exchange traffic fee) and in turn offer a range of transit.
The differences between the offers are made on the tariffs, bandwidth (up and down) offered, and customer support but also the added services such as web hosting, access to mailboxes, access to Usenet. The neophyte will focus especially on usability and documentation and be wary of the often variable quality of support, more advanced side eyeing best technical services for money, the trader will focus on the fault tolerance and require service guarantees (SLAs: Service Level Agreements). In addition, other technical differences may exist, including the availability of IPv4 or IPv6 address fixed.
Offers Internet access via ADSL accompanied French now mostly a television access and free phone to landline numbers in France. These are the triple play. It is through the telephone jack that data arrives at home. A housing provided by your ISP then divides the flow and divert it to television, telephone or computer. The major drawback of triple play turns into failure: you will then no television, no telephone or Internet. The quality of the phone is not always perfect, same for television. But the main advantage is obviously the price. Instead of paying three separate vendors, you receive all at the same time and at a low price (which depends on the suppliers).
Different types of access are possible, e.g., a PSTN access (Switched Telephone Network) is based on a modulation-demodulation (modem) that converts the binary digital information the computer analogue signal nickname on the passing lanes telecommunications (copper pair, satellite, fiber optics).
There are many types of Internet access, usually ordered by the age of technology and speed achievable:
- 56K Modem
- ISDN (Integrated Digital Network Services)
- Cable Modem
- Including xDSL ADSL
- T-carrier: T1, T2, T3
- Satellite Internet (mono or bi)
Some suppliers offer a roaming service ((en) roaming) to enable their customers to connect anywhere in the world through other providers. It is then possible to connect virtually everywhere in the world price of a local or national (not international).
Most providers offer access to mailboxes. Access to e-mail is sometimes impossible if the access point is not that of the supplier, this is particularly true for the SMTP (outgoing mail), but not necessarily for the incoming mail.
Study: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The text is available under the Creative Commons.
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