There is no single version of Linux but there are different distributions, usually created by community developers or companies who choose, prepare and compile packages to include. All distributions share the Linux kernel (albeit often in different versions and custom), and differ from each other for the “software park”, i.e., packets prepared and selected by the developers to distribute itself, the management system software and support services and maintenance offered.
Distributions exist executables directly from CD without requiring installation on your hard disk, such as Knoppix and Daughter are called distributions or live desktop CD. For others you can perform the installation from USB stick.
Major Linux distributions
In alphabetical order, follows the list of most popular Linux distributions:
- Arch Linux – It’s lightweight, fast, highly scalable and adaptable to their needs optimized for i686 now available for X86-64 and PowerPC.
- BackTrack – BackTrack, which provides tools to do penetration testing. It derives from the distro Slackware, but modified, by the team of “Remote-Exploit.org. The latest version is Slackware 3.0. ‘debianizing’ later and the version 4.0.ultima current version.
- CentOS – is a distribution based on the sources of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, so its equal in all respects except for the logos and the name will be changed as trademarks. It is used mostly within the server.
- Damn Small Linux – Distribution very light, with Fluxbox Desktop Environment, particularly suitable for computer dating, (that only requires 16 MB of RAM), and its size is 50 MB, characteristics that allow it to be initiated by a simple key USB.
- Debian – provides an excellent system management software packages (deb format), compiled for 11 different architectures: Alpha, AMD64, ARM, HP PA-RISC, Intel x86, Intel IA-64, MIPS (big endian), MIPS (little endian), PowerPC, IBM S/390, SPARC. Is defined for this “universal operating system”. She installation available in both text mode and graphic.
- Dreamlinux – Brazilian distribution derived from Debian which uses the Xfce Desktop Environment, is similar to MAC OS X, light and usable by all distributed in different versions.
- Fedora – non-commercial distribution sponsored by Red Hat Rather cured in appearance, is frequently updated with the latest news. The packaging system is based on RPM Package Manager and installation is available in both text and graphical mode.
- Gentoo Linux – non-commercial distribution based on sources that can optimize and make the system extremely flexible. Implement a system derived from * BSD port. The installation is done manually, follow the appropriate manual or via the LiveCD installer. Additional strengths of distribution are the excellent documentation and the community very helpful.
- GNewSense – GNU / Linux distribution near the GNU project based on Ubuntu and Debian with the aim to include only free software. The goal of gNewSense is to provide users with software packages that offer the stability of Ubuntu and Debian, with the addition of complete freedom of free software to 100%. It is supported by the FSF.
- Kanotix – a live distribution is closely related to Knoppix but more geared towards home use. It offers support for Serial ATA and USB modem (and eagle-eciadsl usab in particular). As Knoppix can be used as a live CD (recovery, testing, testing, diagnostics, etc.) And can be installed on the hard disk
- KaeilOS – Distribution Embedded Software developed by Koan
- Knoppix – The most famous live CD distribution. Born to forensic is derived from Debian. Very suitable for beginners, allows you to have a complete bootable directly from CD-ROM or DVD that allows, among other uses, the demonstrative use as diagnostic tools, such as test hardware compatibility, etc. shows some variations as Eduknoppix.
- Linspire – commercial distribution derived from Debian that points to the ease of installation and use even by beginners.
- Mandriva – until recently known as Mandrake, is one of the major distributions and more focused on the user desktop. It is distributed free of charge and as a commercial product (in this case includes some proprietary packages), with new releases about twice a year. Has a packaging system based on RPM.
- MEPIS – non-commercial distribution that works both as a live CD is not installed. The ISO image is written with a filesystem ‘ipercompresso’ containing several GB of packages on one CD.
- Mint – based on Ubuntu includes some custom software to install and manage, a main menu that resembles that of Windows Vista, and includes pre-installed multimedia codecs for DVD, MP3 etc.
- Moblin – Distribution optimized for netbooks
- OpenSUSE – is a non-commercial distribution created by the opening of community development SuSE.
- PCLinuxOS – easy to use distribution based on Mandriva uses RPM packages.
- Puppy – Distribution very light version available in live CD, and suitable for less powerful PCs or dated, employs few resources and disk space. If the amount of RAM is sufficient (256 MB or more), it runs entirely in memory.
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux – is the most widespread commercial distribution. Light is not updated to the latest kernel versions but prefers and components established and tested. The developers of Red Hat have created a widespread system of RPM packages.
- Sabayon – Formerly known as RR4, Sabayon is a Gentoo-based distro that uses KDE Desktop Environment.
- Slackware – It is often defined as the distribution more “pure” in terms of the standard GNU Linux. Has a package management system very hard with a relative scarcity of precompiled software.
- SLAX – derives directly from Slackware and retains the characteristics of speed, ‘established’, lightness and wide configurability ‘according to the different needs of each user. Adopt a modular approach advanced.
- SME Server – Distribution derived from CENTOS designed for the needs of SMEs
- SuSE – Famous European distribution, widely used in business, but also addressed the user desktop. Also based on RPM, a commercial product. – Home. It is based on the work of the openSUSE project.
- Ubuntu – Debian-derived distribution, has risen to prominence due to its ease of installation and use and availability of frequent updates to the stable version. Support Debian packages and the GNOME desktop. There are several variants, including Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Xubuntu. He is currently the most widespread and popular distro.
- Yellow Dog – Distribution developed by Terra Soft for PowerPC hardware architecture based on CentOS also supports the PlayStation 3.
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