History Of A Personal Computer

History Of A Personal Computer

What Is A Personal Computer

A personal computer, also known as micro-computer or computer is a computer intended for use by a person and whose dimensions are small enough to fit on a desk.

Functional architecture of the micro-computer

The microcomputer is a system of automatic processing of information, which receives input information (input devices), allows the temporary storage and processing (CPU), backup and archiving (devices storage and backup), communication (peripheral input / output), display and printing (output devices).

History and evolution

Personal computers have emerged when the cost and size of computers have been sufficiently reduced to be sold to the general public. Before that, the computers produced by the machinery industry were central shared among many users who accessed the digital terminals.

The history of personal computers is partly confused with that of microprocessors. The first machines were built kit in the 1970s after creating the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. The question of who created the first microcomputer is a source of controversy.

* If one considers the first kit, it seems to be an Intel kit MCS4 in 1971.
* If one considers the first machine sold any meeting ready to use, it is the Micral of the French company R2E in 1972.
* Looking at the first personal computer (designed for and sold to individuals), it is the Altair 8800 in 1975.

The first personal computers was very popular and often cited as having introduced all the “revolution” of the personal computer appeared in 1977. These pioneer magnificent computers that began the personal computer  revolution are:

* Apple II Apple;
* The TRS-80 Tandy;
* Commodore PET Commodore International.

In 1981 IBM produced the IBM PC. This personal computer and its offspring, the compatible PC, have gradually dominated the market, approaching 100%. The latest personal computer to occupy a significant place in the market is the Apple Macintosh.

However, the growing convergence between the material used in the Macintosh and the one used in PCs – up to the adoption, in 2006, Intel processors by Apple – minimize the traditional gap between the two worlds. The main differences between micro-computers will now focus on their operating systems.

Some accessories of personal computers are as follows:

1. Monitor
2. Motherboard
3. Processor
4. ATA connectors
5. RAM
6. Expansion card
7. Food
8. CD
9. HDD
10. Keyboard
11. Mouse

Compiling a list of all personal computers that have existed until now is a difficult task. Here is a chronological list of some personal computers that have marked their era:

* Kenbak-1 (1971), sold by mail order without microprocessor.
* Micral (1972-1973), among the big calculator and computer
* Altair 8800 (1975), sold in kit, the first software from Microsoft (BASIC) is designed for it
* IBM 5100 and 5110 (1975-1977), and APL languages BASIC in ROM
* Compucolor (1975), the first to be displayed on a color screen, which was unheard of for a personal computer at the time of its launch
* Apple I, II and III (1976-1980)
* Commodore PET (1977)
* Tandy TRS-80 (1977-1985)
* Sinclair ZX80 and ZX81 (1980, 1981)
* Exidy Sorcerer (1978), the first machine to claim programmable characters
* Texas Instruments TI-99/4A (1979), the first 16 bits of the market
* DAI Imagination Machine (1980), highly oriented music and graphics
* BBC Micro (1981)
* IBM-compatible PC (1981), the source of almost all computers today
* NEC PC-88 and PC-98 (1981)
* Thomson to7 (1982-1984)
* Commodore VIC-20 (1982)
* ZX Spectrum (1982)
* Oric 1 (1982) Oric Atmos (1984)
* Philips VG5000 (1984)
* Sinclair QL (1984)
* Thomson MO5 (1984-1986)
* Apple Lisa (1983), the first personal computer to offer a mouse and a graphical environment.
* Commodore 64 (1983), the personal computer the best-selling
* MSX (1983-1990)
* Amstrad CPC (1984-1989)
* Apple Macintosh (1984), still exists today, but now shares the architecture and IBM-compatible PC
* Amiga (1985)
* Atari ST (1985-1993)
* Acorn Archimedes (1987), the first RISC computer general public
* Sharp X68000 (1987)
* FM Towns (1989)

The global PC market

Market shares of the global PC market in Q3 2007:

* Hewlett Packard (United States) (18.8%)
* Dell (United States) (14.4%)
* Acer (Taiwan) (8.1%)
* Lenovo (former IBM PC division) (China) (8%)
* Toshiba (Japan) (4.4%)
* Other (46.3%)

World market in 2007 according to the audit firm Gartner:

* The number of units sold increased by 13.4% compared to 2006, 271 million units sold worldwide

Market shares by volume in 2007 according to Gartner:

* Hewlett Packard (United States) (19.2%). Growth of 27.4% over one year
* Acer (Taiwan) (13%). Growth of 36.3% over one year
* Dell (United States) (10.5%)
* Lenovo (former IBM PC division) (China)
* Toshiba (Japan). Growth of 26.1% over one year

Buying a computer: Your 2 Choices Are Laptop And Desktop

The price of laptops has declined in recent years and the laptop has become an attractive alternative to the traditional desktop computer.

The laptop has advantages for mobile workers who must carry their computers, such as vendors who visit their clients. However, the desktop is still the most advantageous alternative for sedentary workers and residential users.

Advantages and disadvantages of laptops

Advantages:

* The lightweight and small footprint allow the computer to carry easily.
* The small size is also an advantage for those who have very little space to work or home.
* Facilitate the presentation of products and services or if you have a project to present to jurors (individual or company).
* Confidentiality: the laptop can easily range when not in use.

Disadvantages:

* It is more expensive.
* The replacement of the screen, keyboard and some important components is difficult or impossible.
* Everything is “compressed” (and other components), which promotes failure.
* A laptop is more fragile.
* Suitable hurt heavy multimedia (games , etc.)

Advantages and disadvantages of the desktop

Advantages:

* The ergonomic qualities: The screen and keyboard can be placed at the location and height to maximize comfort.
* The price of a desktop is 20% to 40% less than the price of a laptop power comparable.
* The computer is more robust and better heat evacuates a laptop.
* The computer is also easier and cheaper to repair a laptop.
* After a few years, it is possible to change some parts of a computer to prolong life, which is almost impossible with a laptop.

Disadvantages:

* The major drawback is their size, and thus the difficulty of the move. They require a piece of furniture, even a dedicated room.
~ Acknowledgement and thanks to: Wikipedia.

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