Linux Personal Certificates
To estimate the level of skills of technicians and administrators who have been a number of Linux certificates launched. The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) provides for an internationally recognized Linux certification in three levels, the first two Level (LPIC-1 and LPIC-2), each with two trials and the third level (LPIC-3) at the moment of a core Examination (301) and two extension trials (302: Mixed Environment, 303: Security). Also has the big Linux distributors like Red Hat, Novell and Ubuntu offer our own training certificates, but in part on the distributions and their characteristics are designed.
To assess the degree of security technology products, there are also a number of certificates, of which many were awarded for certain Linux distributions. Thus, for example, the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9, get the Linux distributor ‘Novell Sicherheitszertifikation’ the EAL4 + Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, Red Hat has received for his Redhat Enterprise Linux 4 distribution as well as the EAL4 + certification.
Linux could not be developed without the presence of standardized protocols used on the Internet. Many free software are also reference implementations, including Apache.
Proponents of free software supporters are constant interoperability. They highlight the open formats, data formats whose specifications are public and unrestricted access or implementation, so as not to depend on a single software.
In this context include Mozilla Firefox which tries to respect fully the recommendations issued by the World Wide Web Consortium, Jabber, which gave birth to the XMPP standard recognized by the Internet Engineering Task Force in the field of instant messaging or the OpenOffice suite. org and KOffice have recently launched the OpenDocument standard in the field of office.
In other areas, there is no body or agreement recognized standardization. The market is so fragmented between different vendors who each have their technology or under the domination of a dominant economic player that closes its formats and protocols.
The first scenario prevailing in the war and instant messaging is set by multiprotocol software such as Pidgin or Kopete. The formats of Microsoft Office suites successive protocol Common Internet File System, which lets you share files and printers between different computers on a Microsoft Windows network fall into the latter category. These formats and protocols are often poorly documented or not. Interoperability then passes necessarily by reverse-engineering.
This may require a daunting task, which may also be illegal in the United States but legal in Europe (as it remains within the framework of interoperability); now, OpenOffice.org can read the vast majority of files to different formats. doc, and the software allows Samba to participate in Windows networks.
More problematic from the perspective of free software are the formats and protocols required for interoperability, but technically locked and / or legally: DRM, software patents Directive EUCD, Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
Timeline of Linux distributions
Free software is produced collaboratively, often independently of each other, and may be freely redistributed. It follows a characteristic of the Linux world: the frequent separation between those who produce the software and those who distribute.
They called Linux distribution solution ready to be installed by the end user with the GNU operating system, Linux kernel, installation programs and administration of the computer, a mechanism facilitating the installation and commissioning updated software as RPM or APT and a selection of software produced by others.
An example distribution may choose to specialize (or not) on GNOME or KDE. It is also responsible for the default configuration of the system (design, simplicity, etc.), monitoring of security (facility upgrade) and more generally integration of the whole.
The diversity of distributions can meet different needs they are intended for commercial or not; oriented server, desktop or embedded; oriented general-public or public warning; generalist or specialist for a specific use (firewall, network router , cluster computing, etc.) certified on a given material, or simply completely free, devoid of proprietary code.
Among the most popular distributions include Slackware, appeared in 1993, is now the oldest distribution still active, still maintained by Patrick J. Volkerding, Debian, edited by a community of developers, Red Hat, published by the American company of the same name that also involved the development of Fedora, or SuSE, originally a German translation of Slackware, which has since evolved into incorporating certain sub-systems from Redhat.
Many other distributions more or less specialized exist, are mostly derived from the projects listed above. For example, here are some specialized distribution “desktop environment”: Ubuntu, edited by Canonical Ltd., which is derived from Debian, Mepis also based on Debian, Zenwalk derived from Slackware, Mandriva, Red Hat derivative, published today by the French company same name and is involved in several open source projects.
It is also called LiveCD distributions, one of the most famous is Knoppix, which offer the possibility of running a Linux operating system and full access to many software from the media (CD, DVD or USB) without prior installation on the hard drive, without altering its contents. This versatility has made it become a very popular medium demonstration of use of Linux, and are even used as tools for system maintenance. Some Linux distributions entirely free recommended by the Free Software Foundation include Trisquel and gNewSense.
OEM contracts and tax-free Windows
One of the issues that arise for Linux distributions is to forge partnerships with computer manufacturers to make it easy to find a computer with Linux preinstalled. Because even if say some distributions have made the installation of a Linux system as simple as that of competing operating systems, the mere fact of having to be aware that an alternative exists, be prepared to accept changes in habits and having to install itself system is an undeniable disadvantage compared to the privileged position enjoyed by the distributors of Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. The system from Microsoft is indeed ubiquitous and Apple is also the maker of Macintosh.
Alternatively, Linux users claim to be reimbursed when purchasing a new computer, the share price equal to the operating system and software they have no intention of use, as the law permits some countries. If Apple has shown several times cooperative deal with such requests, reimbursement of Microsoft Windows is usually long and very difficult at present a series of judgments has enabled some consumers to seek reimbursement from manufacturers. Given the difficulty of obtaining the refund based on the EULA, in 1998, associations and LinuxFrench AFUL and Roberto Di Cosmo has launched an action in response to the Windows tax refund.
This situation exists in Europe and North America, but not in some countries of South America where the distributions of Linux have more market share than Windows.
This virtual monopoly partly explains the poor circulation in Europe and North America Linux in particular. Another obstacle to mass adoption of Linux is the poor compatibility with Windows programs (hence the development of wine who also works with ReactOS) and low similarity between Linux and Windows, repulsive lost users accustomed Windows, to make the necessary effort to adapt to Linux. This finding is also behind the Ubuntu distribution that tries to provide a “seamless transition” between Windows and Linux.
Study: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The text is available under the Creative Commons.
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