Major Linux distributions
No following any particular alphabetical order, following is the list of most popular distributions:
- Arch Linux – is light, fast, highly scalable and adaptable to their needs. Optimized for i686 now available for X86-64 and PowerPC.
- BackTrack – BackTrack, which provides tools to do penetration testing. It derives from the distro Slackware, but modified, by the team of “Remote-Exploit.org. The latest version is 3.0 Slackware. debianizing later and the version 4.0.ultima current version.
- CentOS – is a distribution based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux sources, then it equal in all respects except for the logos and the name was changed for trademark reasons. It is used in enterprise environments.
- Damn Small Linux – Distribution very light, with Fluxbox Desktop Environment, particularly suitable for computer dating, (that only requires 16 MB of RAM), and its size is 50 MB, characteristics that allow it to be initiated by a simple key USB.
- Debian – provides an excellent system management software packages (deb format), compiled for 11 different architectures: Alpha, AMD64, ARM, HP PA-RISC, Intel x86, Intel IA-64, MIPS (big endian), MIPS (little endian), PowerPC, IBM S/390, SPARC. It is defined for this “universal operating system”. The installation is available in both text mode and graphic.
- Dreamlinux – Brazilian distribution derived from Debian, which uses the Xfce Desktop Environment, is similar to MAC OS X, light and usable by all distributed in different versions.
- Fedora – non-commercial distribution sponsored by Red Hat Rather cured in appearance, is frequently updated with the latest news. The packaging system is based on RPM Package Manager and installation is available in both text and graphical mode.
- Gentoo Linux – non-commercial distribution based on sources that can optimize and make the system extremely flexible. Implement a system derived from * BSD port. The installation is done manually, following the appropriate manual or via the LiveCD installer. Additional strengths of distribution are the excellent documentation and the community very helpful.
- GNewSense – GNU / Linux distribution near the GNU project based on Ubuntu and Debian, with the aim to include only free software. The goal of gNewSense is to provide users with the program packages that offer the stability of Ubuntu and Debian, with the addition of complete freedom of free software to 100%. It is supported by the FSF.
- Kanotix – a live distribution is closely related to Knoppix but more geared towards home use. It offers support for Serial ATA and USB modem (and eagle-eciadsl usab in particular). As Knoppix can be used as a live CD (recovery, testing, testing, diagnostics, etc..) And can be installed on the hard disk
- KaeilOS – Distribution Embedded Software developed by Koan
- Knoppix – live CD distribution more famous. Born to forensic is derived from Debian. Very suitable for beginners, allows you to have a complete bootable directly from CD-ROM or DVD that allows, among other uses, the demonstrative use as diagnostic tools, such as test hardware compatibility, etc.. Shows some variations as Eduknoppix.
- Linspire – Commercial distribution derived from Debian which points to the ease of installation and use even by beginners.
- Mandriva – until recently known as Mandrake, is one of the major distributions and more user-oriented desktop. It is distributed free of charge to a commercial product (in this case includes some owners package), with new releases about twice a year. Has a packaging system based on RPM.
- MEPIS – non-commercial distribution that works both as a live CD is not installed. The ISO image is written with a filesystem ipercompresso containing several GB of packages on one CD.
- Mint – based on Ubuntu includes some custom software to install and manage, a main menu that resembles that of Windows Vista, and includes pre-installed multimedia codecs for DVD, MP3 etc..
- Moblin – Distribution optimized for netbooks
- OpenSUSE – is a non-commercial distribution created by the opening of community development SuSE.
- PCLinuxOS – Distribution easy to use, based on Mandriva uses RPM packages.
- Puppy – Distribution very light, available in live CD, and suitable for less powerful PCs or dated, employs few resources and disk space. If the amount of RAM is sufficient (256 MB or more), it runs entirely in memory.
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux – is the most popular commercial distribution. Light is not updated to the latest kernel versions but prefers and stable components and tested. The developers of Red Hat have created a widespread system of RPM packages.
- Sabayon – Formerly known as RR4, Sabayon is a Gentoo-based distro that uses KDE Desktop Environment.
- Slackware – It is often defined as the distribution more “pure” in terms of the standard GNU Linux. Has a package management system very hard with a relative scarcity of precompiled software.
- SuSE – Famous European distribution, widely used in business, but also addressed the user desktop. Also based on RPM, a commercial product. – Home. It is based on the work of the openSUSE project.
- Ubuntu – Debian-derived distribution, has risen to prominence due to its ease of installation and use and availability of frequent updates to the stable version. Support Debian packages and the GNOME desktop. There are several variants, including Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Xubuntu. He is currently the most widespread and popular distributions.
- Yellow Dog – Distribution developed by Terra Soft for PowerPC hardware architecture based on CentOS supports the Playstation 3.
- Distributions completely free.
- Most Linux distributions contain only free software but also, to a lesser extent, proprietary software (such as drivers, codecs, tools and applications), often real lack of free software equivalent. The Free Software Foundation (FSF), based on the Guidelines for Free System Distributions has compiled a list of GNU / Linux distributions that contain only free software:
- GNewSense, distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu and supported by FSF
- Blag (the Brixton Linux Action Group), a GNU / Linux distribution based on Fedora
- Dragør, independent distribution based on the concept of simplicity
- Dynebolic, distribution specialized in editing audio and video.
- Kongoni, African distribution
- Musix, distribution based on Knoppix, aimed at audio production.
- Trisquel, distribution-oriented small businesses, domestic and educational centers.
- Ututo, distribution based on Gentoo was the first GNU / Linux system completely free from recognized GNU Project
- Venenux, distribution mainly addressed to Latin American users.
Embedded Linux Versions
The ability to intervene in the Linux kernel and the appearance of many fans have suggested the use of integrated devices in electronics. Today, in fact, you can find commercial equipment (such as routers or smartphone) with Linux systems greatly reduced. There are also Linux distributions designed to be used on these embedded systems, such as OpenWRT or OpenEmbedded.
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