Unix-type operating system Linux | Part 3

Unix-type operating system Linux | Part 3

Linux Package Managers

Linux distributions are normally made up of packages (packages), and each contains a specific application or component, for example, there may be packets containing a library for managing an image format, or a set of fonts, or a web browser as well as any other program.

A package is typically provided as compiled code, and its installation or removal is handled in more sophisticated than a simple archiving program such as tar. The program responsible for these functions is that the management system packages (Package Management System or PMS) distribution. Each package for such a PMS contains meta-information such as description, version, dependencies, etc. The package management system takes into account these meta-information to research automatic updates to newer versions, to check that all dependencies of a package are fulfilled and / or content automatically.

Different distributions have different package managers, and the main ones are:

  • RPM: RPM Package Manager now, but originally Red Hat Package Manager, originally introduced by Red Hat, but now used in many distributions.
  • Deb – Debian package, originally introduced by Debian, also used by its derivative distributions.
  • *. Tgz or tar.gz, standard tar + gzip, sometimes with additional control file – used by Slackware and others, or sometimes for distributing simple packages “homemade”.
  • Ebuild: file containing information about how to obtain, compile and install a package in Gentoo’s Portage system through the emerge command. Typically these facilities are based on compilation of sources, although some binary packages may be installed in this way.
  • Recipe – file containing information about how to obtain, unpack, build and install a package in Gobo Linux distribution. This system is similar to Gentoo.
  • Autopackage – A manager to create an installation system independent and equal for all Linux distributions.

There is also the opportunity to fill in their applications directly from the sources available, where the binaries are not available. Although the compilation can lead to some difficulties, the application will certainly be optimized for the system on which it runs. Following this logic, some distributions (e.g., Gentoo) offer the possibility to fill the entire operating system.

Linux Standard Base

The Free Standards Group is an organization formed by major software and hardware which aims to improve interoperability between different distributions. Among the proposed standards is the Linux Standard Base, which defines a common ABI (binary interface for Applications), a unique packaging system and a structure for the file system that provides the same naming conventions and the same directory on each system. These are standards currently, but remain scarce even among the distributions developed by members of the same producers.

Study: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The text is available under the Creative Commons.