Operating Systems For Servers
There are many operating systems optimized for server work, particularly in families Unix, Mac OS X and Windows NT.
In these operating systems with emphasis is on computer security, especially confidentiality and availability, and the ability to perform many treatments simultaneously. The man-machine interface is often poorly developed, the servers are rarely handled.
In operating systems for server, a preemptive multitasking kernel provides the simultaneous execution of multiple processes. Each process is executed in a confined space (also called the Sandbox) so that the crash or unexpected behavior of this process does not affect other processes.
To ensure confidentiality, each process is attached to a user account (typically on behalf of the user running the application), and each transaction is subject to a control mechanism which will allow access or deny based permissions information, checklists or access privileges.
The servers being used by network operating system is equipped with various software’s to be used with many protocols involved, and can be used as a relay or routing. Other server software are included in the operating system.
The servers are often used to store large amounts of data. The operating system can perform automatically on regular routine tasks in batch. These are typical tasks of backup or archiving data.
As a minor, the man-machine interface of an operating system for server is undeveloped, and multimedia capabilities are limited: the machines often have no sound card.
The X Window System is a software man-machine interface in client-server included in almost all UNIX operating systems.
Starting and running software is done without human intervention, it can occur when you start the computer (also called boot) or upon request. Nothing is displayed on the screen and the software is invisible.
A given server software can co-operate with any client that uses the same protocol. Similarly, a software client can co-operate with any server using the same protocol.
A file server responds to requests for the creation, moving, deleting, reading, modification or blocking of a file. Files are stored in mass storage server – mostly the hard disk – and handled according to customer requests.
The file servers are often included in operating systems. CIFS is the protocol of the file server and print included in Windows operating systems. NFS is a common protocol for file servers for UNIX operating systems. Samba is a CIFS server for UNIX operating systems. FTP is a protocol file server commonly used on the Internet.
A NAS is hardware / software turnkey intended exclusively for use as file server. The NAS recognizes several protocols.
A print server responds to requests related to digital printing. The documents are placed in queues and then sent to the printers.
The applications involve manipulating queues (one for each printer): reading the content, adding or deleting documents, queuing, and priorities. The server automatically sends the documents one after another to the printer. Documents may undergo changes in format to suit the characteristics of the destination printer. PCL and PostScript data formats common in digital printing.
CIFS is the protocol print servers and files included in Windows operating systems. CUPS is a print server running on Unix operating systems. JetDirect is a range of print servers in the form of an expansion card to put in the Hewlett Packard.