What Is An Internet?
Internet is the global computer network that makes publicly available a variety of services such as email, instant messaging and the World Wide Web, using the communication protocol IP (Internet protocol). Its technical architecture is based on a hierarchy of networks, which implies a de facto non-centralization, earned it the nickname of network of networks.
Internet has been popularized by the advent of the World Wide Web, the two are sometimes confused by the uninformed public. The World Wide Web, however, is that one of Internet applications.
Internet access can be obtained through an access provider to the Internet via various electronic media, either wired (switched telephone network (low speed), DSL, fiber to the home, etc.) or without Wireless (WiMAX, Satellite Internet, 3G etc.). An Internet user is designated by the French neologism “internet”.
The term of U.S. origin “Internet” was derived from the concept of internetting (in French: “interconnecting networks”) whose first documented use was in October 1972 by Robert E. Kahn during the first ICCC (International Conference on Computer Communications) in Washington.
The exact origins of the term Internet remain to be determined. However, this is the first in January 1983 that the name “Internet”, already in use to designate all of the ARPANET and several computer networks, has become official.
In English, we use a definite article and a capital letter, which gives the Internet. This usage is that “Internet” is by far the largest network the largest “internet” world, and therefore, as a single object, designated by a proper name. Internet (with a common name lowercase “i”) is a term of British origin used to describe a network of interconnecting multiple computer networks using routers.
A publication in the Official Journal of the French Republic indicates to use the word “internet” as a common name, that is to say not capitalized [ref. necessary]. The academy recommends French say “the internet” [ref. necessary]. There is controversy on the issue between the supporters of the terms “Internet”, “Internet” and “Internet”.
The memos that Licklider of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) wrote in July 1962 were the earliest texts describing the social interactions that are possible with a network of computers. This would include facilitating communication between researchers of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
In October 1962, Licklider was the first head of computer research program at DARPA. He persuaded his successors Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts’s interest in computer networks.
In 1961, Leonard Kleinrock of MIT published the first theoretical text on telecommunications packet and in 1964 he published the first book on the subject.
In 1965, Roberts and Thomas Merrill tested a first computer connection to long distance, between Massachusetts and California. The result showed that computers could work together remotely, but the mode of telecommunication by establishing circuit telephone system was inadequate. The concept of communication packets Kleinrock won the race.
In 1966, Roberts was hired by Taylor to DARPA to develop the ARPANET. He published the plans in 1967. Introducing the text, he saw two other groups of researchers working independently on the same subject: a group of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom with Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury, and a group of RAND Paul Barran.
Between 1962 and 1965, the RAND group had reviewed the packet for the U.S. military. The goal was to maintain communications in case of attack (possibly nuclear), that allows a packet in a non-centralized network. It was an independent development of the ARPANET: although probably robust to such an attack, ARPANET has yet been designed to facilitate communications between researchers. The report of Paul Baran remained purely theoretical, and is quickly forgotten. But the myth of “ARPANET as the last bulwark against a nuclear attack” finds its origin here.
Meanwhile, the British National Physical Laboratory, the team had progressed Donald Davies: NPL Network, the first mesh network based on the transmission of datagrams (packets) was functional. But the history of the Internet has not been written by Europeans: ARPANET is now official origin of the Internet.
In August 1968, DARPA agreed to fund the development of computers to handle packets of ARPANET. This development was given in December to a group of the firm Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) in Boston. The latter worked with Bob Kahn on the network architecture. Roberts improved topological and economic aspects of the network.
In September 1969, BBN installed the first unit at UCLA worked Kleinrock. The second node of the network was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI), where Douglas Engelbart was working on a hypertext project. Two additional nodes were added with the University of Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. In late 1969, ARPANET had thus four nodes.
The Network Working Group (NWG) led by Steve Crocker finished the communication protocol peer-to-peer ASC in December 1970. This protocol was adopted between 1971 and 1972 by the site connected to ARPANET. This enabled the development of applications by network users.
In 1972, Ray Tomlinson devised the first major application: e-mail. In October 1972, Kahn organized the first large-scale demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). It was the first public demonstration.
The concept of Internet ARPANET was born. The idea was to allow the connection between different networks: ARPANET, communication with satellites, communications by radio. This idea was introduced by Kahn in 1972 under the name of Internetting. The ARPANET NCP protocol does not allow guests to send off the ARPANET or correct possible transmission errors. Kahn decided therefore to develop a new protocol, which eventually became TCP / IP.
In parallel, a project inspired by ARPANET was conducted in France by Louis Pouzin: Project Cyclades. Many properties of TCP / IP have been developed earlier for the Cyclades. Pouzin and Kahn show that TCP / IP has been inspired by Cyclades.
In 1973, Kahn asked Vint Cerf (sometimes called the father of the Internet) work with him, because deer knew the details of implementation of NCP. The first document referring to TCP is written in 1973 by Cerf: A Partial Specification of an International Transmission Protocol.
The original version of TCP only allowed communication by establishing a virtual circuit. It worked well for transferring files or work remotely, but was not suitable for applications like Internet telephony. TCP was then separated from IP and UDP transmissions without proposed establishment of a circuit.
In the late 1980s, NSF (National Science Foundation) which depends on the U.S. administration put up five super-powered data centers, which users could connect, regardless of where they were in the U.S.: ARPANET became so accessible on a larger scale. The system met with considerable success and, after the major upgrade (hardware and lines) in the late 1980s, opened to commercial traffic in the early 1990s.
The early 1990s marked, in fact, the birth of the Internet as we know it today: the Web, a set of HTML pages by combining text, links, images, addressable via a URL and accessible via HTTP. These standards, developed at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee quickly became popular thanks to development at NCSA by Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina of the first media browser Mosaic.
In January 1992, the Internet Society (ISOC) was founded with the aim to promote and coordinate developments on the Internet. The year 1993 saw the appearance of the first Web browser or browser (browser), that supported the text and images. That same year, the National Science Foundation (NSF) mandates a company to register domain names.
As defined by the Working Group on Internet Governance is meant by “Internet governance” the development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society in the context of their roles respective principles, norms, rules, procedures, decisions and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.
The metadata records are important in establishing rules for access to Web resources using the Uniform Resource Identifiers (URLs that can be displayed on the navigation bar on the computer).
A number of agencies are responsible for the management of the Internet, with specific functions. They participate in the development of technical standards, allocation of domain names, IP addresses, etc.:
- Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), under the supervision of the Department of Commerce United States
- Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) which was responsible for architectural and technical
- Internet Society (ISOC).
In order to maintain or expand the network neutrality, but also to engage the various parties in a global dialogue on the issue of governance, the UN convened:
- World Summit on the Information Society;
- Forum on Internet Governance.
The management of digital resources essential to the functioning of the Internet is assigned to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), it delegates the assignment of IP address blocks and Autonomous System numbers to Regional Internet Registries.
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