The routing of email is governed by several standards: SMTP is dedicated to sending a message, POP and IMAP messages are used to repatriate to their reading.
- The MUA (Mail User Agent or e-mail client) from the sender sends the message to an SMTP mail server (the ISP’s in general) or MTA, Mail Transfer Agent.
- The first MTA routes the message to the MTA hosting the recipient’s domain (that of his field domaine2.org). The MTA will issue the final MDA (Message Delivery Agent) who is responsible for managing mailboxes.
- The recipient, through its MUA, asks his mail server (MDA) new messages by using IMAP or POP.
- The recipient, through the browser, requests the web server to retrieve new messages on the MDA.
- The server sends the message to the recipient’s MUA.
Most Internet service providers provide at least one email address to their users. Several sites also offer free or not addresses. Like most Internet services, QoS is not guaranteed. To ensure that a message has been delivered to its addressee, it is possible to use a mechanism of acknowledgment.
System copy and blind copy
Email can be sent to multiple recipients:
- The primary recipients;
- Carbon copy recipients at “CC”;
- The blind carbon copy recipients, “Bcc” or “Bcc”.
The mail client user sends only one copy of the message to its server MTA. The server handles the MTA by duplicating as many messages as there are recipients.
DC function, which means “carbon copy” or “copy” (in English Carbon Copy) to send the same message to multiple people by entering their addresses in the Cc field.
The Bcc function, which means “blind carbon copy” or “blind carbon copy (BCC = Blind Carbon Copy) is a function similar to CC, but the recipients’ addresses appearing in the Bcc section are not visible to message recipients or those to whom the message is forwarded. It is also called “blind copy”.
A message is delivered to all addresses specified in the Cc and Bcc fields, but only the addresses in the Cc field is visible in the final message. Multiple addresses must be separated by a semicolon and a space.
For delivery to multiple recipients do not know (and not wishing to have their address published, if only by means of an electronic newsletter), it is customary to use the Bcc line to Netiquette.
Moreover, this practice limits the adverse effects of viruses and worms that exploit email addresses found in address books of computers.
A mailbox or inbox, or BAL (short for “mailbox”), or inbox in English, is a space dedicated to a user, which are stored (in a stack (stack)) e-mail him reach, until he read them.
In Article 1 IVth fifth paragraph, of Act No. 2004-575 of 21 June 2004 law called for confidence in the digital economy (often abbreviated “LCEN”) gives a broad definition of electronic mail, which covers both SMS sent by telephone that the email sent by computer “means any electronic mail message in the form of text, voice, sound or image, sent by a public communication, stored on a network server or in the recipient’s terminal equipment until it recovers it.
She did not, however, the regime. However, email can be used for private correspondence, either for public communication, particularly when it is sent to all recipients on a mailing list off. The example of direct advertising by electronic means, or “spamming”, illustrated. If an e-mail is private correspondence, he shall benefit from protection under this classification.
If we consider the e-mail as private correspondence, the fact (committed in bad faith, the case of error or ignorance of the recipient are excluded) to open, delete, delay or divert correspondence or not arrived at destination and sent to others, or take fraudulently knowledge is a criminal offense, punishable under Article 226-15 of the Penal Code. These criminal offenses and the penalties are intended to punish repressive Article 9 of the Civil Code which provides him the right to respect for privacy, correspondence belonging to the concept of privacy.
Email & Civil Issues
Another difficulty, determined by law, is whether a message sent in electronic form has any value. Contrary to the mailing address, email address can be multiple: they can choose to have one or more email addresses according to his desire (for example, to specialize in a particular correspondence), in contrast to that post. At first, it undermines the effectiveness of email: you can never be sure that the correspondent has actually been consulted and what was sent.
It is possible that problems arise and that the email suffers. Article 1369-3 of the Civil Code provides the problem and distinguishes the professional from a private individual by providing that “information intended for a professional may be addressed by email, when it sent e-mail address. In other words, the professional, including the merchant may be contacted at his official email address, it is supposed to consult regularly, but not the individual, would he know his email address to the caller. But the text is apparently residual determination and the individual would accept, which happens often in practice, to be contacted electronically, particularly if initiated in this way dialogue. Thus, professionals (persons acting in the course of their work) are deemed to be duly informed by Article 1369-3 Civil Code, when an email is sent to their address.
Email and Obligations
The written nature of email has also fueled the questions about its legal status between persons (or entities). Since the Act of March 13, 2000, e-mail is provided a written paper, but only as evidence. Article 1316-1 of the Civil Code provides this hypothesis. This law was supplemented by the Act of June 21, 2004. The LCEN transposed the directive of June 8, 2000 known as “Directive on certain legal aspects of information society, in particular electronic commerce in the internal market with two year delay. His contribution lies in the fact that electronic documents are no longer only valid as evidence: it is also to conclude a contract. The Civil Code recognizes the validity of electronic acts in Article 1108-1 and determines, through a reference to Article 1316-4, the conditions of validity of an act-mail:
- The signature must identify the party who applied;
- The process must ensure the link between the signature and the act on which it is affixed;
- The integrity of the act must be guaranteed.
Finally, Article 1316-3 Civil Code confirms that “the writing on electronic format has the same probative force as written on paper.
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